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The same limitations seem to be present when it comes other functions that exist at a similar level of functional complexity (i.e., having a similar minimum sequence size and specificity of amino acid residue arrangement for a minimal degree of selectable function).This might be a very good clue to the existence of a real evolutionary pathway, but not necessarily.Antibiotics proved to be wonder drugs in that they killed infection by bacteria without significantly harming the host, if at all. Never before had nature and sickness seemed so much within the control mankind. Shortly after the general usage of antibiotics began the microscopic world revealed its genius for becoming resistant to antibiotics.

As additional support for this statement, consider that bacteria recovered from historical isolation have been found to be resistant to modern antibiotics.

If this ability is due to a genetic alteration, then this alteration will be passed on to each and everyone of its offspring since bacteria reproduce in a clonal fashion. Obviously, bacterial antibiotic resistance is achieved in many ways to include spontaneous genetic mutations that result in new traits or functions that were not present in previous generations of that bacterial group or species.

Some argue that these changes are not "evolutionary" since they do not really increase the information content of the DNA within that bacterium. Carl Wieland (An Australian Medical Doctor): This misconception [about antibiotic resistance and evolution] may be partly due to the fact that even many science graduates believe that the mechanism of antibiotic resistance involves the acquisition of new DNA information by accidental mutations... Loss of control over an enzyme's production can engender antibiotic resistance.

Bacteria from their intestines were actually grown and subjected to various modern antibiotic medications.

Many of the bacterial colonies grown were found to be resistant to many modern antibiotics, proving that this resistance did not evolve over just the past 60 years or so since the antibiotic age began, but where already present before humans started using antibiotics to fight bacterial infections.

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